There is no consistent distinction between "crows" and "ravens", and these appellations have been assigned to different species chiefly on the basis of their size, crows generally being smaller than ravens.
The term "raven" originally referred to the common raven (Corvus corax), the type species of the genus Corvus, which has a larger distribution than any other species of Corvus, ranging over much of the Northern Hemisphere.
The modern English word raven has cognates in all other Germanic languages, including Old Norse (and subsequently modern Icelandic) hrafn and Old High German (h)raban, all of which descend from Proto-Germanic *hrabanaz.
- Corvus albicollis – white-necked raven (eastern and southern Africa)
- Corvus corax – common raven (northern hemisphere)
- Corvus coronoides – Australian raven (Australia)
- Corvus crassirostris – thick-billed raven (Horn of Africa)
- Corvus cryptoleucus – Chihuahuan raven (United States and Mexico)
- Corvus mellori – little raven (southeastern Australia)
- Corvus rhipidurus – fan-tailed raven (eastern Africa and Arabian peninsula)
- Corvus ruficollis – brown-necked raven (northern Africa, Arabian peninusla, Greater Middle East)
- Corvus tasmanicus – forest raven (Tasmania, southern Victoria and north-east NSW in Australia)
Head of a common raven
- †Corvus moriorum – Chatham raven
- †Corvus antipodum – New Zealand raven
- †Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus – pied raven
- Oxford English Dictionary entry for "raven."
- Simpson, J.; Weiner, E., eds. (1989). "Raven". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861186-2.
- "Raven". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 May 2007.
- Lipton, James (1991). An Exaltation of Larks. Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-30044-0.
- "Baltimore Bird Club. Group Name for Birds: A Partial List". Retrieved 3 June 2007.
- "University of California Golf Club. List of Collective Nouns". Archived from the original on 18 September 2004. Retrieved 16 July 2008.
- "Google Ngram Viewer". books.google.com. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
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- Raven videos on the Internet Bird Collection
- North American ravens on eNature
- Interesting raven video from Arizona
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