Kim Hyong-jik

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Kim Hyong-jik
金亨稷 1.jpg
Born(1894-07-10)10 July 1894
Died5 June 1926(1926-06-05) (aged 31)
Spouse(s)Kang Pan-sok
ChildrenKim Il-sung
Kim Chol-ju
Kim Yong-ju
Parent(s)Kim Bo-hyon
Lee Bo-ik
Kim Hyong-jik
Revised RomanizationGim Hyeong-jik
McCune–ReischauerKim Hyŏng-jik

Kim Hyŏng-jik (Korean: 김형직, 10 July 1894 – 5 June 1926) was a Korean independence activist. He was the father of North Korean founder Kim Il-sung, the paternal grandfather of Kim Jong-il, and great-grandfather of the current leader of North Korea, Kim Jong-un.


Little is known about Kim. Born on 10 July 1894,[2][unreliable source?] in the small village of Mangyongdae, situated atop a peak called Mungyungbong ("All-Seeing Peak") just 12 kilometers downstream on the Diadong River from Pyongyang, Kim was the son of Kim Bo-hyon (金輔鉉, 1871–1955).[3][4] Kim attended Sungshil School, which was run by American missionaries, and became a teacher and later an herbal pharmacist. He died as a result of numerous medical problems, including third-degree frostbite.

Kim and his wife attended Christian churches,[5] and Kim even served as a part-time Protestant missionary.[6] It was reported that his son, Kim Il-sung, attended church services during his teenage years before becoming an atheist later in life.[5]

Kim Il-sung often spoke of his father's idea of chiwŏn (righteous aspirations).

Kim Jong-il's official government biography states that his grandfather was "the leader of the anti-Japanese national liberation movement and was a pioneer in shifting the direction from the nationalist movement to the communist movement in Korea".[7] This is widely disputed among foreign academics and independent sources, who claim that Kim's opposition was little more than general grievances with life under Japanese occupation.[citation needed] Kim Il-sung claimed his ancestors, including his grandfather Kim Bo-hyon and great-grandfather Kim Ung-u (1848–1878), were involved in the General Sherman incident, but this is also disputed and believed to be a fabrication.[citation needed],[by whom?]


  • Father: Kim Bo-hyon (김보현; 3 October 1871 – 2 September 1955)
    • Paternal grandfather: Kim Ung-u (김응우; 17 June 1848 – 4 October 1878)
    • Paternal grandmother: Lady Lee (이씨)
  • Mother: Lee Bo-ik (이보익; 31 May 1876 – 18 October 1959)
  • Two brothers
    • Kim Hyong-rok (김형록)
    • Kim Hyong-gwon (김형권; 4 November 1905 – 12 January 1936)
  • Three sisters
    • Kim Gu-il (김구일녀)
    • Kim Hyong-sil (김형실)
    • Kim Hyong-bok (김형복)
  • Wife: Kang Pan-sok
    • First son: Kim Il-sung (김일성; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994)
    • Second son: Kim Chol-ju (김철주; 12 June 1916 – 14 June 1935)
    • Third son: Kim Yong-ju (김영주; 21 September 1920 – )


  1. ^ "김형직선생의 지원의 사상은 영원히 빛날것이라고 나이제리아단체 강조". Uriminzokkiri. 2016-03-28. Archived from the original on 2018-05-27. Retrieved 2018-05-27.
  2. ^ Baik Bpong, Kim Il Sung, Volume I: From Birth to the Triumphant Return to the Homeland (Dar al-Talia Publishers: Beirut Lebanon, 1973) p. 19.
  3. ^ Hyung-chan Kim (2003). "Kim Jong Il's North Korea and Its Survivability". Korea and World Affairs. Korea: Pʻyŏnghwa Tʻongil Yŏnʼguso. 27: 251. ISSN 0251-3072. OCLC 3860590. One also has to accept the existence of Kim Bo-hyeon (1871–1955), Kim Il-sung's grandfather, who participated in anti-Japanese activities.
  4. ^ Gourevitch, Philip (September 8, 2003). "Alone in the dark". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on October 17, 2013.
  5. ^ a b "Kim Il Sung killer file". Moreorless : Heroes and killers of the 20th century. Archived from the original on 2005-12-05.
  6. ^ Lankov, Andrei (2011-08-17). "Kim Il-sung: disastrous founder of communist N. Korea". Korea Times. Retrieved 2016-08-02.
  7. ^ Kim Jong Il: Short Biography (PDF). Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. p. 2. OCLC 79301411.

Further reading[edit]

  • April 15th Writing Staff, Central Committee of Korean Writers' Union. Dawn of a New Age: A Novel. 1. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 154676863.
  • The Party History Institute of the C. C. Of the Workers' Party of Korea (1973). Kim Hyong Jik: Indomitable Anti-Japanese Revolutionary Fighter. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 252037406.
  • Ponghwa Revolutionary Site. The Korean Preparatory Committee for the 13th WFTYS. 1988. KPEA 2JB070.