|Died||5 June 1926 (aged 31)|
|Revised Romanization||Gim Hyeong-jik|
Kim Hyŏng-jik (Korean: 김형직, 10 July 1894 – 5 June 1926) was a Korean independence activist. He was the father of North Korean founder Kim Il-sung, the paternal grandfather of Kim Jong-il, and great-grandfather of the current leader of North Korea, Kim Jong-un.
Little is known about Kim. Born on 10 July 1894,[unreliable source?] in the small village of Mangyongdae, situated atop a peak called Mungyungbong ("All-Seeing Peak") just 12 kilometers downstream on the Diadong River from Pyongyang, Kim was the son of Kim Bo-hyon (金輔鉉, 1871–1955). Kim attended Sungshil School, which was run by American missionaries, and became a teacher and later an herbal pharmacist. He died as a result of numerous medical problems, including third-degree frostbite.
Kim and his wife attended Christian churches, and Kim even served as a part-time Protestant missionary. It was reported that his son, Kim Il-sung, attended church services during his teenage years before becoming an atheist later in life.
Kim Il-sung often spoke of his father's idea of chiwŏn (righteous aspirations).
Kim Jong-il's official government biography states that his grandfather was "the leader of the anti-Japanese national liberation movement and was a pioneer in shifting the direction from the nationalist movement to the communist movement in Korea". This is widely disputed among foreign academics and independent sources, who claim that Kim's opposition was little more than general grievances with life under Japanese occupation. Kim Il-sung claimed his ancestors, including his grandfather Kim Bo-hyon and great-grandfather Kim Ung-u (1848–1878), were involved in the General Sherman incident, but this is also disputed and believed to be a fabrication.,[by whom?]
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- Father: Kim Bo-hyon (김보현; 3 October 1871 – 2 September 1955)
- Paternal grandfather: Kim Ung-u (김응우; 17 June 1848 – 4 October 1878)
- Paternal grandmother: Lady Lee (이씨)
- Mother: Lee Bo-ik (이보익; 31 May 1876 – 18 October 1959)
- Two brothers
- Kim Hyong-rok (김형록)
- Kim Hyong-gwon (김형권; 4 November 1905 – 12 January 1936)
- Three sisters
- Kim Gu-il (김구일녀)
- Kim Hyong-sil (김형실)
- Kim Hyong-bok (김형복)
- Wife: Kang Pan-sok
- "김형직선생의 지원의 사상은 영원히 빛날것이라고 나이제리아단체 강조". Uriminzokkiri. 2016-03-28. Archived from the original on 2018-05-27. Retrieved 2018-05-27.
- Baik Bpong, Kim Il Sung, Volume I: From Birth to the Triumphant Return to the Homeland (Dar al-Talia Publishers: Beirut Lebanon, 1973) p. 19.
- Hyung-chan Kim (2003). "Kim Jong Il's North Korea and Its Survivability". Korea and World Affairs. Korea: Pʻyŏnghwa Tʻongil Yŏnʼguso. 27: 251. ISSN 0251-3072. OCLC 3860590.
One also has to accept the existence of Kim Bo-hyeon (1871–1955), Kim Il-sung's grandfather, who participated in anti-Japanese activities.
- Gourevitch, Philip (September 8, 2003). "Alone in the dark". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on October 17, 2013.
- "Kim Il Sung killer file". Moreorless : Heroes and killers of the 20th century. Archived from the original on 2005-12-05.
- Lankov, Andrei (2011-08-17). "Kim Il-sung: disastrous founder of communist N. Korea". Korea Times. Retrieved 2016-08-02.
- Kim Jong Il: Short Biography (PDF). Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. p. 2. OCLC 79301411.
- April 15th Writing Staff, Central Committee of Korean Writers' Union. Dawn of a New Age: A Novel. 1. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 154676863.
- The Party History Institute of the C. C. Of the Workers' Party of Korea (1973). Kim Hyong Jik: Indomitable Anti-Japanese Revolutionary Fighter. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 252037406.
- Ponghwa Revolutionary Site. The Korean Preparatory Committee for the 13th WFTYS. 1988. KPEA 2JB070.