Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg
Albrecht von Württemberg
Duke Albrecht, ca. 1905
Albrecht Herzog von Württemberg
|Born||23 December 1865|
Vienna, Austrian Empire
|Died||31 October 1939 (aged 73)|
Altshausen, Nazi Germany
|Service/||Imperial German Army|
|Years of service||1883–1919|
|Commands held||German 4th Army (1914–1917)|
Army Group Albrecht (1917–1918)
|Battles||First World War|
|Spouse(s)||Archduchess Margarete Sophie of Austria|
Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg (German: Albrecht Herzog von Württemberg Albrecht Maria Alexander Philipp Joseph von Württemberg, 23 December 1865 – 31 October 1939) was the last Württemberger crown prince, a German military commander of the First World War, and the head of the House of Württemberg from 1921 to his death.
World War I
When World War I began, Duke Albrecht's VI Inspectorate Corps was formed into the 4th Army, 123 battalions strong. As King William II had no sons, Albrecht was appointed the army's commander and assigned to the Ardennes, with Walther von Lüttwitz serving as his Chief of Staff. This army he led to victory alongside Crown Prince Wilhelm's 5th Army at the Battle of the Ardennes in August 1914. Following that victory, the 4th Army saw action in the First Battle of the Marne before being transferred to Flanders in October, where Albrecht commanded them during the Battle of the Yser. Albrecht also commanded the German forces during the Second Battle of Ypres, where poison gas was used on a large scale for the first time.
Albrecht was awarded the Pour le Mérite in August 1915 and promoted to Generalfeldmarschall in August 1916. The new Army Group Albrecht was placed under his command in February 1917 and he was responsible for the southern sector of the Western Front until the Armistice.
Albrecht had become heir presumptive to the Kingdom of Württemberg following the death of his father in October 1917, but the German Empire's World War I defeat and the abdication of his cousin King Willhelm II of Württemberg following the German Revolution prevented him from ever succeeding to the throne. He became head of the House of Württemberg after the death of Wilhelm on October 2, 1921.
- Philipp Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg (1893–1975).
- Duke Albrecht Eugen of Württemberg (born 8 January 1895 in Stuttgart; died 24 June 1954 in Schwäbisch Gmünd), who married Princess Nadezhda of Bulgaria (1899–1958), daughter of Tsar Ferdinand I. They had five children.
- Duke Carl Alexander of Württemberg (born 12 March 1896 in Stuttgart; died 27 December 1964 in Altshausen), a Benedictine monk known as "Father Odo".
- Duchess Maria Amalia of Württemberg (born 15 August 1897 in Gmunden; died 13 August 1923 in Altshausen), briefly engaged to Crown Prince George of Saxony.
- Duchess Maria Theresa of Württemberg (born 16 August 1898 in Stuttgart; died 26 March 1928 in Eibingen).
- Duchess Maria Elisabeth of Württemberg (born 12 September 1899 in Potsdam; died 15 April 1900 in Meran.)
- Duchess Margarita Maria of Württemberg (born 4 January 1902 in Stuttgart; died 22 April 1945 in Altshausen.)
Decorations and awards
- Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle, Kingdom of Prussia - invested 18 January 1900
- Knight of the Military Order of Max Joseph
- Pour le Mérite (1915), with Oak Leaves (25 February 1918)
- Military Merit Cross, 1st class (Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 1914)
- Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Austria-Hungary, 1893)
- Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen (Austria-Hungary, 1891)
- Knight of the House Order of Fidelity (Grand Duchy of Baden, 1904)
- Pawly 2003, p. 30.
- Tuchman 2014, p. 16.
- Hopkins 1910, p. 372.
- Pawly 2003, p. 11.
- Zabecki 2014, p. 1504.
- born 13 May 1870 in Artstetten Castle; died 24 August 1902 in Gmunden.
- "Court Circular". The Times (36043). London. 19 January 1900. p. 7.
- Boettger, T. F. "Chevaliers de la Toisón d'Or - Knights of the Golden Fleece". La Confrérie Amicale. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
- "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1910), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 41
|Wikisource has the text of the 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica article "Albert, Duke of Württemberg".|
- Hopkins, J. Castell (1910). The Life of King Edward VII with a Sketch of the Career of King George V. W.E. Scull.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Pawly, Ronald (2003). The Kaiser's Warlords: German Commanders of World War I. Illustrated by Patrice Courcelle. Osprey. ISBN 978-1-78096-673-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Tuchman, Barbara W. (2014) . Guns of August. Random House Trade. ISBN 978-0-345-38623-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Zabecki, David T. (28 October 2014). Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1598849816.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Albrecht, Duke of WürttembergBorn: 23 December 1865 Died: 31 October 1939
|Titles in pretence|
|— TITULAR —
King of Württemberg
2 October 1921 – 31 October 1939
Reason for succession failure:
Kingdom abolished in 1918
Duke Philipp Albrecht
Formed from VI Army Inspectorate
| Commander, 4th Army
2 August 1914 – 25 February 1917
General der Infanterie Friedrich Bertram Sixt von Armin